Snowbalisation: the beginning of the end

After years of growth global supply chains have not just stopped growing but are actually shrinking In the 90s, a booming time for globalisation, the idea that global supply chains had become flat was considered gospel but in recent years the tide is beginning to turn.

Baker Mackenzie an American consultancy interviewed 600 Asia based TNCs and found nearly half are considering major changes to their supply chain. A tenth are considering a complete overhaul. One reoccurring theme is a change in the role china plays in the global market.

It is now clear that long international supply chains making goods cheaper is not without its disadvantages.  Most TNCs do not know their supplier’s suppliers which is a situation that is hardly secure considering they could be held hostage if a supplier fails to meet its obligations

Shocks to supply chains can come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Following the Japanese tsunami in 2011, a global semiconductor tried to map its vulnerabilities to 3rd and 4th tier suppliers. It took a team o 100 executives over a year to work out who was in their extended murky supply chain.

Secondly what is clear is that global trade consist not just of goods but services as well, call centres in India for example. Services create a third of value going into manufactured goods and services are growing 60% faster than manufactured goods. As services are usually best carried out closer to consumers, it’s possible in the future many firms will be more likely to source closer to home.

Thirdly we have seen that a stretched supply chain is vulnerable to political uncertainty and economic sanctions. More recently the rise of populism has disrupted global supply chains for example many firms are threatening to pull of out of Britain in the wake of Brexit. Globalisation is not going down without a fight. The Charted Institute of Procurement and Supply indicated that 1/5 of continental businesses would demand a substantial discount for even a one day delay at the border. A shocking 1/10 indicated they would cancel the contracts outright. In a fast paced consumer world, time is everything.

Meanwhile across the pond American firms have already experienced the bite of Trumps Tariffs. Despite the truce agreed with Mr. Xi, Trump’s tariffs have remained in place and Huweii’s future is uncertain. And in short a full blown trade war is not off the cards. Moody’s credit agency estimated such a conflagration, would cut real GDP growth in America 1.8% and reduce growth rates across Asia by 1% at least.  And in a globalised world it will be everyone who suffers economically. The OECD predicts a trade war would take 600 billion of global growth by 2021

A recent survey of European firms by Credit Suisse showed an increasing tendency to locate investments in Europe not outside Europe, despite the potential departure of the UK, one of its biggest markets. The findings stated that firms are no longer planning supply chains predominately based on cost. Apple has reportedly asked its suppliers to see how much it would cost to move 15% -30% of its manufacturing from China to South East Asia and India.

Previously technology enabled globalised supply chains but this time it may begin to localise them. It’s likely that to make up for the rapid change in supply chains that technology will be increasingly integrated into the way businesses plan, source, make and deliver.

AI, predictive analytics and robotics are already revolutionising businesses at every level and the general consensus is there is much more progress in the pipeline. Some may call those who dream of nearly 100% automated supply chain overly optimistic, but with rapid progress in new technologies and Moore’s law, it’s far from impossible. Whatever your stance on globalisation, for businesses, one thing is clear. If supply chains have to get shorter they’ll have to get faster and smarter as well.

Energy is about to change forever and it’s not what you think

There’s a huge problem with renewables

It’s called Curtailment and to put it simply it’s when we produce too much wind or solar at certain times of the day and we have to just shut it down. Texas ¼ of energy is produced by wind but when curtailment happens the wind power shuts down and Texas has to use non renewable like natural gas power plants.

The problem is the energy produced cannot be stored as the batteries to store them are too expensive and battery prices need to half in price just to be competitive with natural gas plants. Currently less than 1/10 of 1% of global energy spends any time in batteries.

But consider the experience curve, the idea that as a company produces more units, the individual cost per unit becomes cheaper. The experience curve happens for a few reasons

  • As workers make more of a product they become more efficient at making them
  • Production processes become standardised to be as efficient as possible
  • Products can become specialised to fit specific needs (Different types for industrial, transport, consumer markets)
  • Better use of technology as a result of automation
  • Products are redesigned and improved due to consumer feedback

The more we use solar panels the better we get and making them. Every time the amount of solar panels double the cost reduces 28%. Solar energy is now the cheapest energy in the world and it’s only going to get cheaper. What’s even better is the same thing is happening with batteries.

Growing demand for electric cars and electric storage is making battery production cheaper and battery price has dropped 80% in the last decade alone and renewable energy stored in batteries is becoming increasingly economically viable.

In some places it’s already happening. The Hawaiian rainforest island Kauai, they have already swapped fossil fuel power for solar plus batteries, significantly reducing the carbon footprint of the island and the cost of energy from 15.5 cents to 13.9 cents per KwH. The Hawaiian installation is Tesla’s third project. Elon Musk’s company has previously installed a solar panel and battery grid on the American Samoan island of Ta’u, as well as a battery farm in California in 2017.

Tesla’s founder says his newly built gig factory will single handily double global supply of batteries. Musk is not alone he is in an arms race with Chinese companies who claim they will build capacity for 3 giga factories by 2021. With Samsung and other big names are joining in, the race is getting more and more competitive. There are also other technologies like silicon anodes, solid state batteries and lithium air that could skip us ahead on the experience curve by more than a decade. These developments could make battery powered ships, trains and even airplanes possible.


It’s not just Tesla that are changing the world we live in. Green start up companies like Ripple and Hyperloop Poland raising money on and if you invest £150 within 30 days using this link you will get £25 in investment credit.

The problem with Fusion energy

Fusion is the joining of two nuclei to make a single heavier nucleus and it also produces some leftover energy in the process.

It is the opposite of fission which comes from splitting an atom and is used to power nuclear plants. Fusion occurs constantly on our sun, which produces most of its energy via the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium.

Fusion energy has two advantages over fission energy which is what we currently use in nuclear power. Fusion doesn’t lead to run off chain reactions the way fission can, so there’s no need to worry about nuclear meltdowns. Another benefit of fusion reactions is that it doesn’t produce the large amounts of dangerous radioactive waste that fission reactions do.

But unfortunately for fusion to occur on Earth, you need a temperature of at least 100 million degrees Celsius. The amount of energy you would need to put in to produce that kind of heat or pressure is much, much higher than what you get out in usable energy.

To have fusion on earth we need cold fusion, a term used to describe the hope that fusion reactions can occur at relatively low temperatures. The idea of cold fusion was once a mere pipe dream, the field was largely written off as pseudoscience the late 1980s.

That all changed when Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann reported that their room-temperature electrolysis experiment had produced so much heat and nuclear by-products like tritium that the only explanation was a nuclear reaction. Pons and Fleischmann’s results led to a new wave of cold-fusion experimenting, but no one was able to replicate their heat anomaly. A Department of Energy review later debunked the evidence.

But scientists are still working on making (hot) fusion a viable energy source. Stewart C. Prager of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory called the process of creating viable energy from fusion “a grand scientific challenge.”. Today, fusion reactions occur in doughnut-shaped chambers called tokamaks where gas is pumped into a vacuum chamber and electricity flows through the doughnut’s hole.

The gas becomes charged, to make a state of matter – one that isn’t liquid, gas, or solid-called plasma. Plasma is an ionized gaseous substance that becomes highly electrically conductive to the point that long-range electric and magnetic fields dominate the behaviour of the matter.That plasma is then locked inside the vacuum chamber by magnetic fields, created by massive magnetic coils,  in order to imitate the pressure of the sun’s core. Waves are fired into the plasma to raise its temperature, and at around 100 million degrees fusion can occur.

Reaction outputs have come a long way in the past few decades—from milliwatts 40 years ago to 16 megawatts today – but it’s not enough to make it a economical source of energy. One barrier to a sustained reaction, aside from the amount of energy needed to reach such high temperatures, is finding a material that can withstand that much heat for more than a few seconds.

Steve Cowley, director of the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, says more investment is needed to make fussion possible. “It’s expensive research that can only be done at large scales and nobody sees the need right now.” Cowley says for 20 billion dollars he could build you a working reactor but it may pnot be reliable. That said 25 years ago we didn’t even know if we’d be able to make fusion work. Now, the question is whether we can make it affordable. h

Will China democratise?

There are three key arguments against democratisation in China

  1. The Chinese middle class is too small and will unlikely grow. Democratisation happens when a middle class grows large enough to demand political reform this has been the case for other democratic regions in the country like Japan. But Japan is small in comparison to china and was able to build up in percentage terms a larger middle class than can a very large and populous country.
  2. China has never been a democracy. Many Chinese people and political commentators have argued that democracy is fundamentally opposed to Chinese culture
  3. China is unequal and countries with high inequality are less likely to democratise.

The fact that China has thousands never been democratic is completely irreverent. All countries had thousands of years of non-democratic political systems before becoming democratic. If we look at the Inglehart values map you can see the 4 nearest countries to China (South Korea, Lithuania, Estonia and Taiwan) are all democracies. undefined

And whist it’s true that the middle class are still a minority in China, it is not true that things will stay that way for a very long time. China will be mostly middle class by 2050. A big issue in China today is the fact that blue collar wages are rising faster than white collar wages. University graduates often complain that factory and construction workers earn more than they do.

East Asian countries are increasingly democratic which points strongly towards democratic china. Those East Asian democracies also had thousands of years of non-democracy before first becoming democratic and are culturally similar to China. Countries tend to democratise when they pass 15k USD in Purchasing Power Parity but East Asian countries Taiwan and Japan democratised at 12k and 14k respectively. China currently has a Purchasing power parity of 7.5k but is expected to reach 15k USD in 3-5 years indicating that China could democratise as soon as 2022.

But it might not be inequality that is preventing China from democratising as China has less inequality (in terms of Gini Coefficient) than South Africa but South Africa is much more democratic than China (According to the Democracy index) so this indicates that China is equal enough already to democratise. Some argue that China’s large rural population is preventing economic development and therefore democratisation.

The wealth divide is very pronounced along rural urban lines, with Chinese urban dwellers earning significantly more and Chinese people who live in rural areas. In general affluent Chinese trust the Communist Chinese Party (CCP) more than they trust democracy because they fear that democracy will empower the rural working classes at their expense. However china is beginning to urbanise and as it does its population will become increasing educated and middle class which is a key driver of democratisation.

The Chinese government predicts the urbanisation rate to increase another 10% by 2020 and in 2014 the state implemented the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020) in March to tackle various problems derived from China’s fast urbanisation. Previous to this urbanisation had been stunted by the the Hukou system that prevented rural residents gaining access to urban facilities. The Hukou system is being reformed and China has acknolwged that urbanisation is inevitable. It’s likely that now urbanisation is in the process when urbanisation rate reaches a similar level to that of Taiwan or Korea and other countries it is similar to it will democratise.

China has an urban population of 59% compared to Taiwan’s 78%, South Korea’s 81% and Japan’s 91% which gives credit to the argument that urbanisation will lead to democratisation. Perhaps its not suprising that North Korea’s urbanisation rate is much lower than it’s southern counterpart at 61%.

In summary it’s likely China will begin its process towards democratisation as it begins to urbanise.

The rise of ethical consumption

Today, when corporations can be more influential than entire countries, where we put our pounds is where the power lies. In some ways every time we spend our cash we are making an active choice about the world we want to live in.

The problem is global supply chains are increasingly complex with many countries and companies being involved in the production of one product, so it is difficult to confidently make an informed choice.

Retail manufacturing industry is second only to oil in how much it pollutes. According to Annie Leonard, an expert in overconsumption, only 1% of the materials used to produce our consumer goods are still in use six months after sale. Whilst globalisation has increased affordability of consumer goods it has made consumption unsustainable and plagued with ethical dilemmas. Moreover consumption does not actually seem to make us happy anyway. Consumerist society is based on the exploitation of people in poor countries making goods that bring next to no utility for people in rich countries whilst making them sad and destroying the planet in the process. When you say it out loud it sounds insane!

However, times are changing. Increasing awareness around these issues has led to a rise in what is known as conscious consumption, a movement of people questioning the role that consumerism has played in their lives, the lives of others and the planet we live on.

A third of UK consumers claim to be very concerned about issues regarding the origin of products. A study from YouGov and the Global Poverty Project revealed that 74% of respondents would pay an extra 5% for their clothes if there was a guarantee workers were being fairly paid in safe conditions. That 5% doesn’t sound like a lot, but consider the fact that the fashion industry lifts a staggering 125 million people out of poverty by adding 1% of its profits to workers’ wages.

“Greenwashing” and corporate social responsibility marketing campaigns are no longer enough. In an increasingly transparent world, businesses must keep up with growing demands for ethical business practices and sustainable supply chain management. In the age of the consumer, it’s ethical consumption that will change our world.

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Going Dutch for happiness

I had good hard think recently after debate about happiness I had with my mate Adam. Long after the debate I realised I was putting my argument the wrong way. My argument was based on the data that shows money has a weak correlation with happiness and after a certain point, it has pretty much no correlation. It’s not that pursuing more money is bad its that it shouldn’t come at the expense at things that are proven to make you more happy.

That argument still stands but I think I’ll try a different approach to convince you Adam.

You want a good job to provide for your future family so…

Welcome to my case for happy families.

Exhibit A: The happiest kids in existence

The first video demonstrates that Dutch kids are the happiest in the world, the video if you haven’t already watched it demonstrates a few key differences between the upbringing Dutch kids have verses the classic Anglo American one

  • Moderate amounts of chocolate for breakfast
  • Biking everywhere! All weathers, all places
  • Not  pushed at school too early
  • Children are more motivated when they make choices about what to do
  • On average they work a 29 hour week
  • They have one day a week where the kids spend time with their parents
  • Give children independence
  • Lots of family time!


This article focuses more on how the traditional extended family plays a big role

  • The fact that Dutch parents are happy and not overworked translates well into happy kids
  • 68% of Dutch mums work around 25 hours a week
  • Dutch  dads play a bigger role because many also work part time. 1/3 Dutch men work part time to spend more time with their kids
  • Dutch grandmothers play a bigger role in bringing up kids than in the UK

The article also mentions the lack of pressure at school and the the fact Dutch kids eat Chocolate for breakfast BUT again it’s the fact that they eat breakfast with their families leading to more family time!

EXHIBIT C: Kids with stay at homes mum’s the happiest

So again. Another study stressing importance of family time over work. In fact a study cited in the article shows that women are happier as a homemaker than any other profession.

Another important thing to consider by staying at home to look after the kids, families save money because they don’t have to pay for childcare which adds up. So if you are looking it from a financial perspective “ a dollar saved is a dollar earned”

Ok so you know the importance of family over money for raising happy kids. Now what?

Money. Still. Matters! But with a good knowledge of how to achieve maximum happiness through minimal expenditure I hope you will realise that even this is relatively cheap which brings me to…

EXHIBIT D The purchases that are most likely to bring happiness

  1. Financial security – the most important way to increase happiness is to decrease stress and by saving money and giving yourself a sizable emergency fund you can decrease your financial stress
  2. Experiences – the study by Professor of Psychology Dan Gilbert shows it’s not the type of experience that people are engaged in but the fact that they are engaged in it because mind wandering is not just a symptom of but actually a cause of happiness. Therefore spending lots of weekends away on cheap getaways is more effective at making your wife and kids happy
  3. Charity – a study in Canada by social researcher Michael Norton conducted an experiment where they gave money to two groups of people. They told the first group to buy things for others and the other to buy things for themselves. The group that gave things to others way much happier. The same result happened when they repeated the study in Uganda.

The article ends with warnings of how not to spend money

  1. Don’t buy things that you think will make you happy, because it won’t work. It’s more important to manage expectations and your own mental wellbeing7
  2. Don’t buy things to impress other people
  3. Avoid lifestyle inflation, in other words avoid spending more as you earn more

How disruptive technologies will revolutionise our economy: 3D printing

Whether it will merely enhance the manufacturing process or revolutionise it entirely no one in business should ignore 3D printing.  There has been some headlines recently in the news which are interesting but the disruptive nature of 3D printing is yet to make it’s significant impact on global supply chains as it is not yet extensively used in manufacturing.

Here are the 6 main ways 3D printing will change the future of business

Mass customisation

3D printing will allow businesses to involve clients in the design of products.  It will essentially bring about customer co-creation, blurring the lines between design, manufacturing, and distribution.

Customer involvement in the design process will create “prosumers”: individuals who are actively involved in the creation of a product while at the same being its main consumers.

Resource efficiency

3D printing uses resources more efficiently compared to modern manufacturing methods as it produces less waste during manufacturing compared with conventional machines. Because governments will look to reduce waste to prevent environmental crises, 3D printing could be an essential investment for businesses to stay compliant with increasing strict environmental regulations.

3D printing will take production closer to the market as customisation can take place after products are sold, which reduces the need for transport and the carbon footprint of the supply chain.

Decentralisation of manufacturing

Because 3D printing requires less space so it will allow manufacturing to be decentralised and can be closer to consumers. This means for businesses and consumers less shipping and delivery costs.

Because manufacturing can be localised 3D printing will lead to the rise of distributed manufacturing whereby a network of geographically dispersed sites are involved in production whilst being coordinated with IT systems. There will be a demand for people with the logistics and IT skills necessary to manage these networks.

Complexity reduction

3D printing is a powerful way to reduce complexity in the supply chain by replacing previously assembled parts with a single component; the manufacturing process can be simplified significantly. For businesses and consumers this means savings because internal cost and time through reduced supply chain complexity.

Instead of multiple steps required during the production phase 3D printing allows the same result with just one single task making the flow of the material easier to see and control.

Rationalisation of Inventory and Logistics

3D printing allows the movement of physical goods across the globe to be substituted by sending electronic files to printers.

Physical storage of products could be replaced by digital inventory where 3D model files of products would be used instead. This means actually storing and transporting products would be less essential to supply chains.

3D printing will have an impact on inventory in manufacturing. Instead of semi-finished parts and components raw materials which are cheaper and safer can be used. As raw materials require lesser skilled workers than the handling of semi-finished goods and final products, businesses would have lower labour costs.

Product Design and Prototypes

3D printing technology is so adaptable, meaning it can produce a vast range of different products cheaper, easier, and quicker than modern methods.

As product designers are no longer tied to concept of “design for manufacturing” products can be redesigned almost entirely with a focus on aspects such as enhanced functionality and material savings without compromising any of the attributes.

Legal and Security Concerns

Legal concerns have been and will continue to be an important topic of discussion in relation to 3D printing. Some researchers argue that 3D printing allows the printing of harmful objects such as guns to be made easier for criminals.

As the current legislation does not consider the copying of physical objects, it is unprepared to define clear rules for the use of 3D printers. For example, who is held responsible for the printing of knives and guns? And who is to blame if 3D printed product breaks: the designer, the printing machine manufacturer, the material supplier, or the company printing and selling the product?

As this technology, open source modelling software and sharing platforms for 3D files become more commonplace the risk for legal misuse of 3D Printers increases, posing a challenge for law makers.

Is the Dollar going to collapse? What will happen and how can you protect yourself?

For the dollar to collapse there must be an underlying weakness. From 2002  to 2018, the dollar has declined 6 percent according to the U.S. Dollar Index because the U.S. debt almost more than tripled during that period to a whopping $22 trillion. The debt-to-GDP ratio is now more than 100 percent which increases the chance the United States will let the dollar deflate in value as it would be easier to repay its debt with cheaper money.

For the dollar to collapse there must be another currency for everyone to buy. The dollar’s current strength is based on its status as the world’s reserve currency. The dollar became the reserve currency when President Nixon abandoned the gold standard 1973. As a global currency, the dollar is used for more than 50% of all cross-border transactions which means central banks must hold the dollar in their reserves to pay for these transactions. Currently 61% of these foreign currency reserves are in dollars. Coming in 2nd by quite some distance is the euro at less than 30%. The Eurozone crisis has made its potential to become the world’s reserve currency obsolete.

China and Russia argue that a new global currency. Both countries would like their own currencies; the rubble and the Yuan to become the next world’s reserve currency. And for obvious reasons; it would lead to significant economic growth for China which is currently in the process of massive economic transformation. China is right to be alarmed at the dollar’s potential deflation because it is the largest foreign holder of U.S. Treasurys, so it just saw its investment deteriorate. The dollar’s weakness also makes it difficult for China to control the yuan’s value, which is pegged to it.

Some more internationally minded people argue bitcoin could replace the dollar as the new world currency as it’s politically neutral and not controlled by any one country’s central bank. It is created, managed, and spent online making it 100% digital. It can also be used at brick-and-mortar shops that accept it, although this percentage is very low at the moment. Bitcoin is programmed to be finite which appeals to those who would rather have a currency that’s backed by something tangible, such as gold. Although many prominent gold advocates such as Peter Schiff and Robert Siyosaki are amongst Bitcoin’s fiercest critics. And criticism of bitcoin is not just luddite conservatism, there are big obstacles. First, its value is highly volatile as there is no central bank to manage it. Second, it is used frequently for illegal activities such as drug trafficking on the dark web, which makes it vulnerable to tampering by unknown forces.

For the dollar to collapse there needs to be a huge economic event that destroys people’s confidence in the dollar. Collectively, foreign nations own over $6 trillion in U.S. debt. If China or other key shareholders started dumping these holdings of Treasury notes, this could trigger a major panic leading to collapse. China owns $1 trillion in U.S. Treasury’s because China pegs the yuan to the dollar. By pegging the Yuan to the Dollar, China keeps the prices of its exports to America cheap.

China and other countries that own Dollars could only if they saw their holdings declining in value rapidly and they had another export market to replace the United States. The countries that own US treasury bonds are dependent on U.S. consumers. China, Japan and others all know that if they sell their dollars, it would further depress the value of the dollar. Which means their products, still priced in their own currencies will cost more in the United States, meaning exports could decline and their economies would suffer. Right now, it’s still in their best interest to hold onto their dollar reserves. Although economic developments in China could majorly change this current situation. China is selling more and more to other Asian countries as they become more economically developed. Furthermore Chinese manufacturers have already begun outsourcing to Africa, a continent now being dubbed Africa’s Africa.

Despite economic developments, for the time being the United States is the best market in the world for exporters so it’s unlikely a collapse is imminent despite what people trying to sell you vast quantities of gold will tell you on the internet. China knows that it’s bad business to bankrupt your best customer. But the dollar will gradually decline in value against the Yuen as China finds more markets to export to.

I recommend holding foreign mutual funds and valuable commodities such as gold and silver. I personally hold small amounts of crypto currencies for additional security. So whilst the Dollar collapse and the subsequent economic apocalypse are unlikely having a well diversified portfolio and liquid assets also is well advised.

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How Big Data is revolutionising advertising

Experts predict that by 2030 predictive analytics (the ability to use information to predict future actions) in marketing will be much more refined. Today we consume many products and services daily. Some of these purchases are easy to predict – a student will need books or a new parent will need a pram, etc.  However, most of the goods and services we purchase involve a decision process influenced by many factors including our income, values, mood and experiences on a particular day (all of which shape our purchasing preferences) as well as our awareness of the options available to us

Consumers are, thanks to the internet, more informed than ever before and through the sharing of information such their purchases, likes, dislikes and values online, huge amounts of data are being created. That’s why it’s called “Big Data”. The vast amount of data is so massive that usual data processing applications are incapable of managing it all, let alone analysing it.

As these massive amounts of data are becoming more open to tracking and analysis and the ability of information technology to deal with the data increases, opportunities are being created to understand the needs of consumers as individuals and provide them with purchasing options personal to them. Big Data contains not only information of individual preferences but also the potential to discover social trends of certain groups with similar preferences.  These trends will make it easier for marketers to understand potential customers better and, based on the past actions of actual customers, predict which products and services are most suited to those potential customers.

Online advertisements are generally disliked and if online advertising wants to survive, it must become less irritaing and more artful in order to draw-in the customer by entertaining or informing consumers rather than annoying them. The power of seeing a product in a setting that conveys a feeling that the consumer wants was first used to help sell products in photographic print advertising and TV commercials.  It is now the reason behind “product placement” on TV. Most recently, this type of visualisation has been used in vlogs and on the Instas of social influencers that link a personal story with the use of particular products and services. At the same time, online advertising has become more targeted.  For example, if you have ever added a product to your shopping cart of an online retailer but not purchased the product, chances are that you will have started seeing ads for that product when you visit other websites that feature advertising.  You may have also seen ads for products based on your recent purchase. This type of personalised advertising can be useful rather than invasive or annoying. 

The leap towards big data will allow marketers to understand consumers on a more personal level and the evolution of online visual media will allow marketers to provide individual consumers with very specific products and services, matching their personal needs. Advertisers regularly use images and words to link desirable lifestyles and feelings with their product  because advertisers know that people are more likely to buy something if they can easily see how using it in a way that makes them feel good. By 2019, leading information technology company Cisco predicts that 80% of the world’s internet traffic will be videos.  This speaks to how attracted human beings are to things that stimulated their visual senses.

By anticipating individual consumer’s future needs, big data driven marketing creates four career opportunities  in marketing: the Big Data Wrangler, the Purchase Prediction Analyst, the Multi-Marketer and the Marketing eMediamaker will all play a key role in the big data cycle. For more information on these careers please follow the hyperlinks.